R is a programming language and free software environment that is used for statistical computing and graphics. In recent years the popularity of R programming grows rapidly because there is rapid growth in the fields like data visualization, data analysis, and data science, etc.
The R programming language is written primarily using C, Fortran, and R itself. Its syntax is pretty easy you can find so many learning resources on R programming online.
In this article, I will discuss how to install R programming in Ubuntu.
To follow this article you should have the following:
- A system with a recent version of Ubuntu (here I will use Ubuntu 20.04 LTS) installed on it.
- You should have the access to a user account with superuser privilege.
- Working internet connection.
Installing R from Ubuntu’s repository
If you install R from Ubuntu’s official repository you will get a slightly older version but installing this way is one of the easiest methods.
sudo apt install r-base
Press y and then enter if it asks you for confirmation.
Installing R from CRAN repository
If you want to install the latest version of R then use CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network) which is a list of mirrors for downloading the latest version of R.
First, use the given command to download the required dependencies –
sudo apt install dirmngr gnupg apt-transport-https ca-certificates software-properties-common
Next, add the repository key of CRAN in your system –
wget -qO- https://cloud.r-project.org/bin/linux/ubuntu/marutter_pubkey.asc | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/cran_ubuntu_key.asc
Now add the repository on your system by using –
sudo add-apt-repository "deb https://cloud.r-project.org/bin/linux/ubuntu $(lsb_release -cs)-cran40/"
Here we use
lsb_release -cs to access which Ubuntu flavor you are using.
Finally, use the given command to install the repository and its dependencies –
sudo apt install --no-install-recommends r-base
Verify the R installation
After installing R from any of the given methods you can verify that if R programming is installed properly or not by using the given command in your terminal.
If it is installed correctly you will see the output as given in the image below.
How to use R in Ubuntu
The R programming language can be used in several ways on a Ubuntu system.
Using R in interactive mode
After installing R open your terminal and use –
This will open an R console which is given in the image below.
Here you can enter an R command OR perform basic mathematical operations.
You can exit from the R console by using the q().
Using R in non-interactive mode
In non-interactive mode, you can execute an R program from a file with
To demonstrate this I will run the hello world program which is saved in a file i.e.
hello.r you can see its content in the image below.
Now to run this program use –
This will display the given result in your terminal.
You can also use an IDE such as RStudio for executing R scripts.
By following the above instructions I hope you are able to use the R programming language on your Ubuntu system.
For any query write us in the comments below.